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Zoom display 49 participants requirements – zoom display 49 participants requirements:.How to show participants in the gallery view in Zoom meeting


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The purpose of this study was to investigate provider preferences for the graphical display of pediatric asthma PGHD to support decisions and information needs in the outpatient setting. Using multiple types of PGHD, we created two case-based vignettes for pediatric asthma and designed accompanying displays to support treatment decisions. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with six participants were used to evaluate the display usability and determine provider preferences.

Preferences for display content included the amount of information and the relationship between data elements.

Clinicians likely need more information to make treatment decisions when PGHD displays are introduced into practice. Pediatric asthma, an airway disease characterized by wheezing and chest tightness, is the most common chronic disease in children. PGHD shared during clinical encounters could facilitate assessment and modification of treatment plans.

The purpose of this study was to investigate provider preferences for the graphical display of pediatric-asthma PGHD to support decisions and information needs in the outpatient setting. We aimed to design and assess the usability of low-fidelity prototypes, assess preferences for PGHD visualizations, and obtain insights to guide future interactive-display development. We conducted the study in two phases. The first phase focused on design and creating case-based vignettes and initial low-fidelity prototypes for information displays.

The second phase was a formative evaluation of the displays. The study procedures are depicted in Fig. Study procedures. We developed vignettes to anchor the participatory design approach and formative evaluation.

Vignettes are brief, written scenarios about hypothetical characters to simulate the features of specific, real-world situations, and are used to elicit responses from research participants that can then be generalized. One member of the research team V. The focus of each vignette was on the PGHD needed to support decision making rather than the quality or outcome of decisions.

The vignettes were reviewed by a senior member of the research team C. Consistent with Gestalt theory and visualization principles, 23 24 we chose to focus on graphical displays for the information. Graphical displays are ideal for use in data-rich environments and consist of a combination of object-based and text-based information to reduce cognitive load for decision makers.

We developed one display for each vignette in the form of two-dimensional wireframe mockups. Display 1 D1 corresponded with the first vignette and Display 2 D2 corresponded with the second vignette. The following criteria were used to guide the design. First, we wanted the displays to be clinically relevant and to reflect the types of PGHD needed to support each vignette.

Second, using the strategy outlined by Shneiderman’s Visual Information-Seeking Mantra overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on-demand , 29 we created an overview of all available PGHD, with opportunities to zoom, filter, and access details on demand planned for future iterations. Third, we sought to ensure that each display had the highest-possible concentration of PGHD and contained multiple features to support the decisions described in each vignette. We employed theoretically grounded visualization principles to assemble the PGHD in the displays.

At the display feature level, we leveraged Gestalt principles and laws of visual perception for usability and design, such as common fate, element connectedness, proximity, and similarity. These principles influenced the design of the air-quality index and pollen-count elements as aligned line graphs.

We used color to facilitate information processing, as well as trends and patterns to display time-oriented data elements. Consistent with information-visualization literature, we included simple line graphs and bar graphs.

A full description of the design features is found in Table 2. In the early development stages, participatory design methods are well suited for obtaining feedback, exploring user needs, and generating knowledge. By including users in the process, we sought to gain an understanding of the preferred features for PGHD display. We recruited study participants from two academic medical centers with multiple outpatient clinic locations—one in Salt Lake City and the other in New York City.

Inclusion criteria were adult clinicians who practiced as a physician or nurse practitioner and made treatment decisions for patients with pediatric asthma in the outpatient setting. Using purposive and snowball sampling, we emailed invitations to providers who had experience managing the care of patients with pediatric asthma. Although there is debate on the number of participants for usability studies, testing with a sample size of at least five uncovers most usability problems.

We elicited feedback on the prototype displays through a series of individual design sessions with semi-structured interviews. Before each session, we emailed a document containing the two vignettes, with corresponding displays, and provided a link to an online questionnaire.

To ensure consistency in our process, one member of the research team V. We digitally recorded all interviews after obtaining verbal permission from the participants. Utilizing the think-aloud protocol, we asked a series of questions and probes with the goal of a more in-depth exploration of the participant’s interpretation of the data. As part of each cycle, we conducted interviews until we achieved target-user response saturation, which we defined as no new information or repeated responses to the interview questions.

After the participants reviewed the prototype display, we conducted formative usability testing which tends to be exploratory, making it well suited for rapid, iterative display design. This resulted in the completion of one cycle.

Due to the formative and diagnostic nature of this study, we were primarily interested in discovering severe usability problems. After the first cycle, we conducted a content analysis of participant responses to the interview questions and used the recommendations to refine and modify the prototypes for subsequent cycles.

We switched the order of the vignette and display presentation for the second cycle. On completion of the second cycle, we assessed the need for a third cycle using the results of the PSSUQ and the content analysis. Data analysis consisted of calculating the mean scores for each questionnaire item for each display in each cycle.

We used a professional transcription service to transcribe the audio recordings from the individual interview sessions and all transcripts were stored securely. Two members of the research team V. Regular meetings were held to resolve discrepancies through discussion until consensus was reached.

We conducted two individual design sessions with six participants for a total of 12 interviews. The participants were physicians with pediatric-asthma experience who practiced at an academic medical center two in Salt Lake City; four in New York City.

The formative evaluation of the display relied on two components: the results of the participant survey and the analysis of the individual interviews. The mean scores of each item and the total mean of the nine PSSUQ items for each display in each cycle are available in Table 3. We ended the design cycles after the second cycle because we had met the criteria for termination. For D1, the nine-item mean strongly correlated with the intention-to-use item in the first cycle with a value of 0.

For D2, the correlation between the nine-item mean and the intention-to-use item was 0. Using the qualitative data, we made iterative changes to each display between cycles. We included all modifications as part of the second cycle, except for suggestions that were unrelated to the vignette content or display features. The displays used for each cycle are shown in Figs.

Display 1. The left display A is the initial prototype used in the first cycle: the top portion of the display depicts the monthly score of the Asthma Control Test using connected colored dots and the bar graph depicts the number of exposures for each month. The lower portion of the display depicts line graphs for air quality and pollen count for the same time period as reported by the mHealth apps. The right display B was refined after the second cycle: the line graph for the Asthma Control Test scores was separated from the symptom bar graph.

The symptom bar graph was converted to a multiple bar graph to differentiate the types of symptoms. Additional colors and legends were added to all graphs. Display 2. The left display A is the initial prototype used in the first cycle: the line graphs represent the total number of symptoms, doses of controller medication, and exposures to triggers as reported in the mHealth app monthly.

The pill bottle icon represents the administration of rescue inhaler doses. The right display B was refined after the second cycle: the top portion of the display is a bar graph depicting the number of controller medication doses versus the number of rescue doses each week.

The bottom left portion of the display depicts two-line graphs that show the relation of symptoms and triggers reported on a weekly basis.

The bottom left of the display contains three pie charts depicting the percentages of day symptoms, night symptoms, and triggers for the 4-week timeframe. Through content analysis, we identified display preferences for pediatric-asthma PGHD displays and then categorized into two higher-order categories: display features and display content Appendix B. Participants expressed preferences for display features line graphs, pie charts, and bar graphs used to depict the PGHD in the displays Table 4.

Participants also reported that the use of colored dots for the ACT scores, legends to explain the trendlines, and symbols for medication doses were desirable. Although most participants felt that trendlines were more helpful than numbers, a few of the participants requested that numbers be added to the trendlines.

The preferred frequency of data points was monthly, although some participants requested both yearly and daily views. All participants mentioned the benefit of using color to denote abnormality levels and strongly preferred color for this purpose, where possible.

Participants expressed specific preferences for types of content, the stratification of the content, and the ability to see the relationships between items in the content. In particular, participants commented positively on the importance of environmental content, and on the advantage of having a large amount of relevant patient data displayed in one place. Participants also requested the addition of other types of PGHD that were not a part of the vignette, such as allergy medications and amount of exercise.

Participants indicated the need to understand the underlying data, the method of collection, and the functions of a smart inhaler. Responses to the final open-ended question provided suggestions for future features regarding the use of PGHD in clinical care.

Two participants suggested that it would be helpful to know about comorbidities, such as obesity, and to have the ability to see the body mass index in the display. Participants were interested in seeing activity data, such as the schedule for gym classes or soccer practice, to assist with planning for asthma control.

Other participants commented on the benefit of having PGHD instead of relying on recall. However, one participant expressed concern for Medicaid populations and the added expense of smart inhalers or mHealth tools, coupled with health-literacy issues.

One participant thought that the user should be able to calculate the level of asthma control for the patient within the display, indicating the desire for embedded decision support. To our knowledge, this is the first study to design and conduct a formative evaluation of PGHD displays for providers using participatory design methods.


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